Regine Paul


Professor, Professor in Political Science



Regine's research focuses on comparative public policy governance, broadly situated in interpretive and critical policy analysis, inspired by constructivist political sociology, science and technology studies, as well as cultural political economy. She explores the interactions and effects of norms, knowledge claims, meaning-making, as well as material structures and power relations in public policy. Her empirical expertise is in migration and mobility governance, risk analysis and risk regulation, and the use of artificial intelligence technologies in the public sector.

Regine is Editor of Critical Policy Studies, the 2021 Handbook on the Governance and Politics of Migration (short promotional video here) and the 2024 Handbook on Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence (see open access introduction). She also published the monographs Varieties of Risk Analysis in Public Administrations. Problem-Solving and Polity Policies in Europe (short intro here) and The Political Economy of Border-Drawing which explains variation in labour migration governance in Europe.


Regine has designed and is course responsible for the MA level electives The Politics and Governance of Migration and AI for Good? The Global Governance and Politics of Technology. She has also been responsible for International Organisations and the European Union (GOV 107) at the BA level, where we introduced project-based learning in 2022. Regine's teaching protfolio also covers public policy analysis, decolonial political economy, research design, qualitative and comparative methods. She is happy to supervise BA and MA theses in any of these broad areas of expertise.

Regine advises the following PhD candidates:

  • Sjoerd de Winter (UiB) working on Norway-EU relations and policymaking (main adviser)
  • Synne Augestad Lysberg (UiB) working on policy instrumentation in higher education (co-adviser)
  • Dorothea Biaback Anong (Humboldt Universität Berlin) working on free movement and mobility regimes in the EU, ECOWAS and Mercosur (co-adviser)
  • Nicholas Henkel (Universität Kassel) working on refugee migration policy reforms in Germany and Hungary (co-adviser)


Regine was part of a working group to design the Department's English-speaking MA program The Politics and Governance of Global Challenges around a student-centered project-based learning approach (2021-2022). The program came to attract the highest applicants-student places-ratio at the whole university in 2023 and 2024.

In 2022, Regine was awarded the status as "Excellent Teacher" by the Social Sciences Faculty.


(only publications since 2015 listed here, for more details see my researchgate account)



2021: Varieties of Risk Analysis in Public Administration. Problem-Solving and Polity Policies in Europe. London: Routledge (Series ‘Studies in Governance and Public Policy’)  

2015: The Political Economy of Border Drawing. Arranging Legality in European Labor Migration Policies. Oxford/New York: Berghahn Books (paperback edition published in 2019)


Edited volumes

2024: Handbook on Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar (with Emma Carmel and Jennifer Cobbe)

2021: Handbook of the Governance and Politics of Migration. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar (with Emma Carmel and Katharina Lenner)

2017: Society, Regulation and Governance: New Modes of Social Change?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar (with Marc Mölders, Alfons Bora, Michael Huber and Peter Münte)


Peer-reviewed articles

2023: ‘European Artificial Intelligence “trusted throughout the world”: The risk-based fashioning of a competitive common AI market’, Regulation & Governance, First online.

2022: 'Can Critical Policy Studies outsmart AI? Research agenda on artificial intelligence technologies and public policy', Critical Policy Studies 16(4)

2022: 'Peace and prosperity for the digital age? The colonial political economy of European AI governance', IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 41(2)with Emma Carmel

2020: ‘Analyse and rule? A conceptual framework for explaining the variable appeals of ex-ante evaluation in policymaking’, der moderne staat – Zeitschrift für Public Policy, Recht und Management 13(1), 124-142. doi: 10.3224/dms.v13i1.11

2020: ‘Why regulators assess risk differently: Regulatory style, business organization, and the varied practice of risk-based food safety inspections across the EU’, Regulation & Governance [Impact Factor: 2.792], online first 19 May, with Olivier Borraz et al., doi: 10.1111/rego.12320

2020: ‘The boundary conditions for regulation: Welfare systems, state traditions & the varied governance of work safety in Europe’, Governance[Impact Factor: 3.643] (part of a special issue ‘Varieties of regulatory capitalism’, edited by M. Guidi, I. Guardiancich and D. Levi-Faur), with Henry Rothstein and David Demeritt

2019: ‘Towards a new ontology of crisis? Resilience in EU Migration governance?’, European Security [Impact Factor: 1.453], 28(4): 393-412, with Christof Roos

2019: ‘Varieties of risk regulation in Europe: coordination, complementarity & occupational safety in capitalist welfare states’, Socio-Economic Review , 17(4): 393-412, with Henry Rothstein et al.

2017: ‘Harmonization by risk analysis? Frontex and the risk-based governance of European border control.’ Journal of European Integration , 39(6): 689-706.

2016: ‘Negotiating varieties of capitalism? Crisis and change in contemporary British and German labor migration policies.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies [Impact Factor: 2.297], 42(10), 1631-1650.

2016: ‘Risk-based governance against national obstacles? Comparative dynamics of Europeanization in Dutch, French and German flooding policies.’ Journal of Risk Research , 19(8): 1043-1062, with Fréderic Bouder and Mara Wesseling.


Book chapters

2024: ‘Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence: Vantage Points for Critical Inquiry (Introduction to the Handbook)’, in R. Paul, E. Carmel, and J. Cobbe (eds), Handbook of Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence, Cheltenham Spa.

2024: ‘The Politics of Regulating Artificial Intelligence Technologies: Towards AI Competition States’, in R. Paul, E. Carmel, and J. Cobbe (eds), Handbook on Public Policy and Artificial Intelligence, Cheltenham Spa: Edward Elgar Publishing.

2022: ‘True to type? How governance traditions shaped responses to Covid-19 in China, Germany, UK and USA’, in Brown, P. and J. Zinn (Hrsg.) COVID-19 – From the perspective of the Sociology of Risk and Uncertainty, London: Routledge, pp. 115-143, with Henry Rothstein, David Demeritt und Li Wang.

2022: ‘The comparative politics of migration governance in Europe.’ Anghel, Veronica and E. Jones (eds.) Developments in European Politics III, London: Bloomsbury, pp. 137-150.

2021: ‘The governance and politics of international migration: A conceptual-analytical map.’ Carmel, E., Lenner, K. and R. Paul (eds.) Handbook on the Governance and Politics of Migration, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, with Emma Carmel and Katharina Lenner.

2019: ‘The political ordering of migrant workers: Comparative governance analysis of European labour migration policies’. Carmel, E. (ed.): Governance Analysis: A New Approach to Politics, Policy and Practice, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, p. 93-111.

2018: ‘How ‘low-skilled’ migrant workers are made: border-drawing in migration policy’, Rijken, C. and T. de Lange (eds. ) Towards a Decent Labour Market for Low Waged Migrant Workers, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, p. 57-78.

2018: ‘Risk as a governance tool in European border control’, Weinar, A., Bonjour, S., and L. Zhyznomirska (eds.): Handbook on the Politics of Migration in Europe, London: Routledge, p. 227-238.

2017: ‘Shaping society: New modes of social change in regulation and governance? An introduction.’ Paul, R., Mölders, M., Bora, A., Huber, M. and P. Münte (eds.) Society, Regulation and Governance: New Modes of Social Change?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, with Marc Mölders, p. 1-12.

2017: ‘Risk: new issue or new tool in regulation and governance research?’ Paul, R., Mölders, M., Bora, A., Huber, M. and P. Münte (eds.) Society, Regulation and Governance: New Modes of Social Change?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, p. 59-74.


See a complete overview of publications in Cristin.


My on-going research focuses on 

The politics of regulating artificial intelligence technologies in Europe (and beyond)

  1. How have the EU's convoluted roles and identities as normative power for democracy and fundamental rights, as market power and competition state in the global race to AI, as dominant power in data colonialism, and not least as prime user of tech in its own governance projects co-shaped its AIT regulation? How are struggles and conflicting rationalities emerging from these multiple identities being negotiated by different actors in concrete policy practice (e.g. in so-called sandboxes, in EU-funded educational programs for public sector officials, or in negotiations with third countries) and to what effect? To what extent are regulatory struggles over generative AI specific? (collaborations on projects and papers include Heidrun Aam, Kari Steen-Johnson, and Jascha Bareis)
  2. How does the EU's AI governance approach shape digital sovereignty and experiences with AI in the global south? (collaboration with Adekemi Omotubora, Subhajit Basu and Carolina Isaza)
  3. How can we conceptualise and analyse AI-related reconfigurations in the global political economy? (book project with Daniel Mügge and Vali Stan)