Introduction to Integrated Development Planning with the Threshold 21 Model Framework



Mål og innhald


The overall purpose of the course is to provide students, government officials, civil society organizations, and other actors involved with development planning with a basic understanding of:

  • Modeling and simulation as a vehicle in integrated development planning
  • How the fundamental mechanisms that drive development are represented in T21
  • The basic dynamics underlying various development issues and their structural origin
  • The scope and applicability of models such as T21
  • Methods of analyzing the dynamics of such models produced by simulation (scenario analysis)
  • Methods for the development and assessment of national strategies, and domain specific policies


In order to achieve such an objective, participants are involved in the development of a scaled down version of T21 for a virtual country (Zambaqui), and in experimenting with that model. The fundamental understanding gained through the process is scalable and applicable to an actual T21 country application.

A comprehensive causal Loop Diagram (CLD )describing the fundamental feedback loops embedded in the T21 structure provides the fundamental framework for the course.

Each module focuses on a specific structural component and its implications for the dynamics of the model. The modules are conceived as separate components of the same overall case study for the virtual country of Zambaqui. The case study will involve studying and experimenting with T21; performing related modeling exercises; and reading relevant articles and book chapters.

The focus of the modules are:

1. The importance of balanced development between the Economy, Society and the Environment

2. How positive feedback loops constitute the engine of development, but may contribute to the reverse

3. How negative feedback loops can slow-down development and counteract policies, but may, at the same time, contribute to stabilization

4. How delays can create instabilities, i.e. worse before better (and better before worse) behavior


On completion of the course the student should have the following learning outcomes defined in terms of knowledge, skills and general competence:


The student will;

  • recognize the need for integration in development planning
  • understand the basic principles of analysis, studying the relationship between dynamcs and struture in complex systems
  • understand how a model, such as T21, may facilitate integrated development planning, i.e. in;
    • problem identification
    • strategy developeemnt; and
    • policy design


The student will;

  • have the basic analytical skills to utilize a simulation model, such as T21, for the purpose of integrated development planning across sectors in society, - specifically the economic, the social and the environmental sectors;
  • have been introduced to theory, methods, techniquues and tools applicable in such planning.

General competence

The student will;

  • recognize the need for and the opportunited offered by simulation models in the dynamic analysis and impact assessment associated with integrated development planning.

Studienivå (studiesyklus)





This is a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), - and is offered via internet.
Krav til forkunnskapar
GEO-SD 230 overlaps with GEO-SD640 and GEO-SD302 so that you will not obtain credits once completed GEO-SD640 or GEO-SD302
Krav til studierett
The course is open to graduate and undergraduate students at the University of Bergen.
Arbeids- og undervisningsformer
This is a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), - and is offered via internet.
Obligatorisk undervisningsaktivitet
Students must go through the entire course and answer all questions in order to be allowed to take the exam.

One week take home exam at the end of the course in the form of a project to be submitted electronically.

The exam assignment will be given in the language of instruction in the course.

The exam answer must be submitted in the same language as the exam assignment.

Alle emne blir evaluert i tråd med UiBs kvalitetssystem for utdanning.
Hjelpemiddel til eksamen
No restrictions