Gunnar Håland





Håland has for decades been concerned with questions pertaining to human ecology within an anthropological and historical framework. He has undertaken a range of lengthy fieldworks in East Africa (e.g. Sudan and Ethiopia) and in Asia (e.g. Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand and China).

Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
Internet exhibition
Academic lecture
Academic article
Masters thesis
Doctoral dissertation
Popular scientific lecture
Short communication
Programme participation
Digital learning tools
Encyclopedia article
Non-fiction book
Feature article

See a complete overview of publications in Cristin.

Selected publications
[forthcoming] Rethinking Ethnicity: From Darfur to China and back. Khartoum.

[forthcoming, with Randi Haaland] Early Farming societies along the Nile. Oxford: Oxford University press.

2012 Samfunn: En prosessforståelse, in Kenneth Dahlgren and Hans Erik Næss (eds) Tanker om samfunn. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, pp. 33-64,

2012 Event Focused Fieldwork and Comparative Methodology. Exploring Ethnic Boundaries and Cultural Variation, in Loshini Naidoo (ed.) An Ethnography of Global Landscapes and Corridors. Rijeka: Intech publishers, pp. 23-56.

2011 [with Randi Haaland] Landscape, in Tim Insoll (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 24-37.

2011 Reflections on the Cultural Background to China's Reaction to the Nobel Prize Award. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 5: 81-100.

2010 Tourism and Commodification of Ethnicity, in Nefissa Naguib and Bert de Vries (eds) Movements of people in time and space : heureux qui comme Ulysses a fait un beau voyage. Bergen: Bric.

2010 Cultural landscape and Migration. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 4:99-110.

2010 Reflections on Contrasting Views on Themes in Chinese Civilization. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 4:1-20.

2009. [with Wu Yunchuan] From House structure to gender relations. Exploring the Na (Mosuo) of Yunnan Province. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology (Annapurna, Baglung), 3: 19-40.

2009. Pastoral people in a globalizing world?, in Alexandros Tsakos and Henriette Hafsaas-Tsakos (eds) Connecting South and North. Sudan Studies from Bergen in Honour of Mahmoud Salih. Bergen: Bric, pp. 97-114.

2008. Explaining causes in evolving contexts: From Nepali hill Farmers to Business Managers in Thailand, in Bradley Walters, Bonnie J. McCay, Paige West and Susan Lees (eds.) Against the Grain. The Vayda Tradition in Human Ecology and Ecological Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, pp. 43-66.

2008. [with Randi Haaland] Craft specialization, cast identites and political centralisation, in K. Chilidis, J. Lund and C. Prescott (eds.) Facets of archeology. Essays in honour of Lotte Hedeager on her 60th birthday, Oslo: Unipub, pp. 155-169.

2007. Ethnicity and Migration: Exploring Casual and Semiotic Contexts of Nepalese Migrants in Southeast Asia. Journal of South-central University for Nationalities, 2: 29-34.

2007. [with Randi Haaland] God of war, worldly ruler, and craft specialists in the Meroitic Kingdom of Sudan. Journal of Social Archaeology, 7(3): 372-93.

2007. [with Poonam Gurung] Globalization of Interaction Systems and the Culture in Ethnicity. The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, 7(3): 77-84.

2006. The Darfur Conflict in Evolving Politico-economic and Socio-cultural Contexts. The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, 6(5).

2004. [with Randi Haaland and Data Dea] Smelting iron. Caste and its symbolism in South-western Ethiopia, in Tim Insoll (ed.) Beliefs in the Past. British Archaeological reports. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 75-86.

2004. [with Randi Haaland and Data Dea] Furnace and Pot: why the iron smelter is a big pot maker A case study from South-western Ethiopia. Azania, XXXIX: 146-165.

2002. Foreword, in R. Chaudhary, B.P. Subedi and O.R. Vetaas (eds) Vegetation and Society: Their Interaction in the Himalayas. Bergen og Katmandu: University of Bergen and Tribhuvan University, pp. 191-200.

2002. [with Randi Haaland and Suman Rijal] The Social Life of Iron. Anthropos, 97: 35-54.

2002. Culture, Society and Nature. Reflections on some Contributions from the Arun Project, in R. Chaudhary, B.P. Subedi and O.R. Vetaas (eds.) Vegetation and Society: Their Interaction in the Himalayas. Bergen: University of Bergen, pp. 191-200.

2002. Thor Heyerdahl, article in Norsk Biografisk Leksikon. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget, pp. 269-273.

2000 [1982] [with Randi Haaland] I begynnelsen [In the beginning]. Vol. 1 i Aschehougs verdenshistorie. Oslo: Aschehoug.

2000. [with Randi Haaland and Data Dea] Ethno-Arcaeological Reasearch on Iron Smelting in Woleita South west Ethiopia. Nyamekuma, December 2000.

1998. Beer, Blood and Mother’s Milk. Sudan Notes and Records, 2: 53-75. 

1996. [with Randi Haaland] Levels of meaning in Symbolic Objects. Cambridge Journal of Archaeology, 6(2): 295-300.

1995. [with Randi Haaland] Who Speaks the Goddess's Language? Norwegian Archaeological Review, 28(2).

1993. Økologiske perspektiver i sosialantropologien [Ecological perspectives in Social Anthropology], in A. Semb-Johansson, J. Lund Hansen and I. Mysterud (eds) Bred Økologi. Oslo: Cappelen Forlag.

1991. Cultural Content and Ethnic Identity, in R. Grønhaug, G. Haaland and G. Henriksen (eds) The Ecology of Choice and Symbol. Bergen: Alma Mater.

 1991. Introduction, in R. Grønhaug, G. Haaland and G. Henriksen (eds) The Ecology of Choice and Symbol. Bergen: Alma Mater.

1991. Systems of Agricultural Production in Western Sudan, in J. Craig (re.) The Agriculture of the Sudan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

1991. Pastorale samfunn og utnyttelsen av fellesresurser [Pastoral Communities and Exploitation of Common Resources], in Stenseth, Tranden and Kristiansen (eds) Forvaltningen av våre fellessresurser. Oslo: Ad Notam forlag.

1990. Fattigdom, bistand og bærekraftig utvikling [Poverty, Aid and Sustainable Development]. Proceedings from the Association of
Development Researchers in Denmark.

1990. Aid and Sustainable Development in a Dual Economy. Forum for utviklingsstudier, 1.

1990. Øl og morsmelk. Symbol, moral og valg i Fur-samfunnet [Beer and Mother's Milk. Symbol, moral and choice in Fur society]. Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift, 1: 3-15.

1987. Centralized Political Systems and the Evolution of Socio-economic Dualism in the Maldives. Journal of Social Studies, 38. Dhaka.

1985-1986. The Global Context of Economic and Political Development in South Yemen, I & II. Journal of Social Studies, no. 28 & 32. Dhaka.

1984 [med W. Keddeman] Poverty Analysis: The Somali Case. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 32(4).

1984. The Jellaba Trading System of Eastern Equatoria, i L. Manger (ed.) Trade and Traders in the Sudan. Occasional Papers in Social Anthropology. No 32. Bergen: University of Bergen.

1984. Fur, in R. Weekes (ed.) Muslim Peoples. Westport: Greenwood Press.

1983. Dualistic Development: Issues for Aid Policy, in J. Parkinson (ed.) Poverty and Aid. London: Blackwell.

1980. Problems of Savannah Development: The Sudan Case. Occasional Papers No 19. Bergen: Dept. of social anthropology, University of Bergen.

1979 [with McCown and deHaan] Interaction between Cultivation and Livestock Production in Semi-arid Africa, in A. Hall, G.H. Cannell and H.W. Lawton (eds.) Agriculture in semi-arid Environments. Ecological Studies No 34. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

1978. Ethnic Groups and Language Use in Darfur, in R. Thelwell (ed.) Aspects of Language in the Sudan. Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning. No 5. Belfast: The New University of Ulster.

1978. Pastoral Development Programs and Anthropological Information Feedback, in East African Pastoralism. Addis Ababa: ILCA.

1977. Pastoral Systems of Production, in O'Keefe and B. Wisner (eds) Landuse and Development. London: International African Institute.

1975. Some Economic and Ecological Implications of Traditional Systems of Livestock Management. Antropologiska Studier, 15. Stockholm.

1974. [with Georg Henriksen] Teknikk og sult i Afrika [Technology and Starvation in Africa]. [kronikk] Dagbladet 26.08.74.

1972. Nomadization as an Economic Career among Sedentaries in the Sudan Savanna Belt, in I. Cunnison and W. James (eds.) Essays in Sudan Ethnography. London: C Hurst & Company.

1971. Familieliv i et afrikansk stammesamfunn. [Family Life in an African Tribal Community] in F. Barth (ed.) Mennesket som samfunnsborger. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

1969. Economic Determinants in Ethnic Processes, in F. Barth (ed.) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

1967. Methodological Considerations, in F. Barth (ed.) Human Resources. Report submitted to FAO. Published as Occasional Paper No 1. Bergen: Dept. of social anthropology, Universitety of Bergen.

1964. Økonomisk vekst og sosial forandring [Economic Growth and Social Change]. Statsøkonomisk Tidsskrift, 4.



-Globalization of Interaction Systems and Ethnic Identity

-Himalayan farmings (co-operation Tor Halfdan Aaase, UiB)

-Poverty traps in industries with low knowledge- and investment barriers
(co-operation with Magnus Hatlebakk, CMI)

Recently completed
Social exclusion, democratic inclusion and the insurgency in Nepal (with  Magnus Hatlebakk, CMI)


Regional: Afrika, Asia, Sudan, Etiopia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Kina og Thailand

Tematisk: Humanøkologi, økonomisk antropologi, etnisk identitet, kulturhistorie